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[散文] 【翻译完成】最后的弥赛亚

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发表于 2019-6-23 21:27 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 chenpony 于 2019-6-29 00:35 编辑

The Last Messiah

I

One night in long bygone times, man awoke and saw himself.

He saw that he was naked under cosmos, homeless in his own body. All things dissolved before his testing thought, wonder above wonder, horror above horror unfolded in his mind.

Then woman too awoke and said it was time to go and slay. And he fetched his bow and arrow, a fruit of the marriage of spirit and hand, and went outside beneath the stars. But as the beasts arrived at their waterholes where he expected them of habit, he felt no more the tiger’s bound in his blood, but a great psalm about the brotherhood of suffering between everything alive.

That day he did not return with prey, and when they found him by the next new moon, he was sitting dead by the waterhole.、


II

Whatever happened? A breach in the very unity of life, a biological paradox, an abomination, an absurdity, an exaggeration of disastrous nature. Life had overshot its target, blowing itself apart. A species had been armed too heavily – by spirit made almighty without, but equally a menace to its own well-being. Its weapon was like a sword without hilt or plate, a two-edged blade cleaving everything; but he who is to wield it must grasp the blade and turn the one edge toward himself.

Despite his new eyes, man was still rooted in matter, his soul spun into it and subordinated to its blind laws. And yet he could see matter as a stranger, compare himself to all phenomena, see through and locate his vital processes. He comes to nature as an unbidden guest, in vain extending his arms to beg conciliation with his maker: Nature answers no more, it performed a miracle with man, but later did not know him. He has lost his right of residence in the universe, has eaten from the Tree of Knowledge and been expelled from Paradise. He is mighty in the near world, but curses his might as purchased with his harmony of soul, his innocence, his inner peace in life’s embrace.

So there he stands with his visions, betrayed by the universe, in wonder and fear. The beast knew fear as well, in thunderstorms and on the lion’s claw. But man became fearful of life itself – indeed, of his very being. Life – that was for the beast to feel the play of power, it was heat and games and strife and hunger, and then at last to bow before the law of course. In the beast, suffering is self-confined, in man, it knocks holes into a fear of the world and a despair of life. Even as the child sets out on the river of life, the roars from the waterfall of death rise highly above the vale, ever closer, and tearing, tearing at its joy. Man beholds the earth, and it is breathing like a great lung; whenever it exhales, delightful life swarms from all its pores and reaches out toward the sun, but when it inhales, a moan of rupture passes through the multitude, and corpses whip the ground like bouts of hail. Not merely his own day could he see, the graveyards wrung themselves before his gaze, the laments of sunken millennia wailed against him from the ghastly decaying shapes, the earth-turned dreams of mothers. Future’s curtain unravelled itself to reveal a nightmare of endless repetition, a senseless squander of organic material. The suffering of human billions makes its entrance into him through the gateway of compassion, from all that happen arises a laughter to mock the demand for justice, his profoundest ordering principle. He sees himself emerge in his mother’s womb, he holds up his hand in the air and it has five branches; whence this devilish number five, and what has it to do with my soul? He is no longer obvious to himself – he touches his body in utter horror; this is you and so far do you extend and no farther. He carries a meal within him, yesterday it was a beast that could itself dash around, now I suck it up and make it part of me, and where do I begin and end? All things chain together in causes and effects, and everything he wants to grasp dissolves before the testing thought. Soon he sees mechanics even in the so-far whole and dear, in the smile of his beloved – there are other smiles as well, a torn boot with toes. Eventually, the features of things are features only of himself. Nothing exists without himself, every line points back at him, the world is but a ghostly echo of his voice – he leaps up loudly screaming and wants to disgorge himself onto the earth along with his impure meal, he feels the looming of madness and wants to find death before losing even such ability.

But as he stands before imminent death, he grasps its nature also, and the cosmic import of the step to come. His creative imagination constructs new, fearful prospects behind the curtain of death, and he sees that even there is no sanctuary found. And now he can discern the outline of his biologicocosmic terms: He is the universe’s helpless captive, kept to fall into nameless possibilities.

From this moment on, he is in a state of relentless panic.

Such a ‘feeling of cosmic panic’ is pivotal to every human mind. Indeed, the race appears destined to perish in so far as any effective preservation and continuation of life is ruled out when all of the individual’s attention and energy goes to endure, or relay, the catastrophic high tension within.

The tragedy of a species becoming unfit for life by overevolving one ability is not confined to humankind. Thus it is thought, for instance, that certain deer in paleontological times succumbed as they acquired overly-heavy horns. The mutations must be considered blind, they work, are thrown forth, without any contact of interest with their environment.

In depressive states, the mind may be seen in the image of such an antler, in all its fantastic splendour pinning its bearer to the ground.


III

Why, then, has mankind not long ago gone extinct during great epidemics of madness? Why do only a fairly minor number of individuals perish because they fail to endure the strain of living – because cognition gives them more than they can carry?

Cultural history, as well as observation of ourselves and others, allow the following answer: Most people learn to save themselves by artificially limiting the content of consciousness.

If the giant deer, at suitable intervals, had broken off the outer spears of its antlers, it might have kept going for some while longer. Yet in fever and constant pain, indeed, in betrayal of its central idea, the core of its peculiarity, for it was vocated by creation’s hand to be the horn bearer of wild animals. What it gained in continuance, it would lose in significance, in grandness of life, in other words a continuance without hope, a march not up to affirmation, but forth across its ever recreated ruins, a self-destructive race against the sacred will of blood.

The identity of purpose and perishment is, for giant deer and man alike, the tragic paradox of life. In devoted Bejahung, the last Cervis Giganticus bore the badge of its lineage to its end. The human being saves itself and carries on. It performs, to extend a settled phrase, a more or less self-conscious repression of its damaging surplus of consciousness. This process is virtually constant during our waking and active hours, and is a requirement of social adaptability and of everything commonly referred to as healthy and normal living.

Psychiatry even works on the assumption that the ‘healthy’ and viable is at one with the highest in personal terms. Depression, ‘fear of life,’ refusal of nourishment and so on are invariably taken as signs of a pathological state and treated thereafter. Often, however, such phenomena are messages from a deeper, more immediate sense of life, bitter fruits of a geniality of thought or feeling at the root of antibiological tendencies. It is not the soul being sick, but its protection failing, or else being rejected because it is experienced – correctly – as a betrayal of ego’s highest potential.

The whole of living that we see before our eyes today is from inmost to outmost enmeshed in repressional mechanisms, social and individual; they can be traced right into the tritest formulas of everyday life. Though they take a vast and multifarious variety of forms, it seems legitimate to at least identify four major kinds, naturally occuring in every possible combination: isolation, anchoring, distraction and sublimation.

By isolation I here mean a fully arbitrary dismissal from consciousness of all disturbing and destructive thought and feeling. (Engström: “One should not think, it is just confusing.”) A perfect and almost brutalising variant is found among certain physicians, who for self-protection will only see the technical aspect of their profession. It can also decay to pure hooliganism, as among petty thugs and medical students, where any sensitivity to the tragic side of life is eradicated by violent means (football played with cadaver heads, and so on.)

In everyday interaction, isolation is manifested in a general code of mutual silence: primarily toward children, so these are not at once scared senseless by the life they have just begun, but retain their illusions until they can afford to lose them. In return, children are not to bother the adults with untimely reminders of sex, toilet, or death. Among adults there are the rules of ‘tact,’ the mechanism being openly displayed when a man who weeps on the street is removed with police assistance.

The mechanism of anchoring also serves from early childhood; parents, home, the street become matters of course to the child and give it a sense of assurance. This sphere of experience is the first, and perhaps the happiest, protection against the cosmos that we ever get to know in life, a fact that doubtless also explains the much debated ‘infantile bonding;’ the question of whether that is sexually tainted too is unimportant here. When the child later discovers that those fixed points are as ‘arbitrary’ and ‘ephemeral’ as any others, it has a crisis of confusion and anxiety and promptly looks around for another anchoring. “In Autumn, I will attend middle school.” If the substitution somehow fails, then the crisis may take a fatal course, or else what I will call an anchoring spasmoccurs: One clings to the dead values, concealing as well as possible from oneself and others the fact that they are unworkable, that one is spiritually insolvent. The result is lasting insecurity, ‘feelings of inferiority,’ over-compensation, restlessness. Insofar as this state falls into certain categories, it is made subject to psychoanalytic treatment, which aims to complete the transition to new anchorings.

Anchoring might be characterised as a fixation of points within, or construction of walls around, the liquid fray of consciousness. Though typically unconscious, it may also be fully conscious (one ‘adopts a goal’.) Publicly useful anchorings are met with sympathy, he who ‘sacrifices himself totally’ for his anchoring (the firm, the cause) is idolised. He has established a mighty bulwark against the dissolution of life, and others are by suggestion gaining from his strength. In a brutalised form, as deliberate action, it is found among ‘decadent’ playboys (“one should get married in time, and then the constraints will come of themselves.”) Thus one establishes a necessity in one’s life, exposing oneself to an obvious evil from one’s point of view, but a soothing of the nerves, a high-walled container for a sensibility to life that has been growing increasingly crude. Ibsen presents, in Hjalmar Ekdal and Molvik, two flowering cases (‘living lies’); there is no difference between their anchoring and that of the pillars of society except for the practico-economic unproductiveness of the former.

Any culture is a great, rounded system of anchorings, built on foundational firmaments, the basic cultural ideas. The average person makes do with the collective firmaments, the personality is building for himself, the person of character has finished his construction, more or less grounded on the inherited, collective main firmaments (God, the Church, the State, morality, fate, the law of life, the people, the future). The closer to main firmaments a certain carrying element is, the more perilous it is to touch. Here a direct protection is normally established by means of penal codes and threats of prosecution (inquisition, censorship, the Conservative approach to life).

The carrying capacity of each segment either depends on its fictitious nature having not been seen through yet, or else on its being recognised as necessary anyway. Hence the religious education in schools, which even atheists support because they know no other way to bring children into social ways of response.

Whenever people realise the fictitiousness or redundancy of the segments, they will strive to replace them with new ones (‘the limited duration of Truths’) – and whence flows all the spiritual and cultural strife which, along with economic competition, forms the dynamic content of world history.

The craving for material goods (power) is not so much due to the direct pleasures of wealth, as none can be seated on more than one chair or eat himself more than sated. Rather, the value of a fortune to life consists in the rich opportunities for anchoring and distraction offered to the owner.

Both for collective and individual anchorings it holds that when a segment breaks, there is a crisis that is graver the closer that segment to main firmaments. Within the inner circles, sheltered by the outer ramparts, such crises are daily and fairly painfree occurrences (‘disappointments’); even a playing with anchoring values is here seen (wittiness, jargon, alcohol). But during such play one may accidentally rip a hole right to the bottom, and the scene is instantly transformed from euphoric to macabre. The dread of being stares us in the eye, and in a deadly gush we perceive how the minds are dangling in threads of their own spinning, and that a hell is lurking underneath.

The very foundational firmaments are rarely replaced without great social spasms and a risk of complete dissolution (reformation, revolution). During such times, individuals are increasingly left to their own devices for anchoring, and the number of failures tends to rise. Depressions, excesses, and suicides result (German officers after the war, Chinese students after the revolution).

Another flaw of the system is the fact that various danger fronts often require very different firmaments. As a logical superstructure is built upon each, there follow clashes of incommensurable modes of feeling and thought. Then despair can enter through the rifts. In such cases, a person may be obsessed with destructive joy, dislodging the whole artificial apparatus of his life and starting with rapturous horror to make a clean sweep of it. The horror stems from the loss of all sheltering values, the rapture from his by now ruthless identification and harmony with our nature’s deepest secret, the biological unsoundness, the enduring disposition for doom.

We love the anchorings for saving us, but also hate them for limiting our sense of freedom. Whenever we feel strong enough, we thus take pleasure in going together to bury an expired value in style. Material objects take on a symbolic import here (the Radical approach to life).

When a human being has eliminated those of his anchorings that are visible to himself, only the unconscious ones staying put, then he will call himself a liberated personality.

A very popular mode of protection is distraction. One limits attention to the critical bounds by constantly enthralling it with impressions. This is typical even in childhood; without distraction, the child is also insufferable to itself. “Mom, what am I to do.” A little English girl visiting her Norwegian aunts came inside from her room, saying: “What happens now?” The nurses attain virtuosity: Look, a doggie! Watch, they are painting the palace! The phenomenon is too familiar to require any further demonstration. Distraction is, for example, the ‘high society’s’ tactic for living. It can be likened to a flying machine – made of heavy material, but embodying a principle that keeps it airborne whenever applying. It must always be in motion, as air only carries it fleetingly. The pilot may grow drowsy and comfortable out of habit, but the crisis is acute as soon as the engine flunks.

The tactic is often fully conscious. Despair may dwell right underneath and break through in gushes, in a sudden sobbing. When all distractive options are expended, spleen sets in, ranging from mild indifference to fatal depression. Women, in general less cognition-prone and hence more secure in their living than men, preferably use distraction.

A considerable evil of imprisonment is the denial of most distractive options. And as terms for deliverance by other means are poor as well, the prisoner will tend to stay in the close vicinity of despair. The acts he then commits to deflect the final stage have a warrant in the principle of vitality itself. In such a moment he is experiencing his soul within the universe, and has no other motive than the utter inendurability of that condition.

Pure examples of life-panic are presumably rare, as the protective mechanisms are refined and automatic and to some extent unremitting. But even the adjacent terrain bears the mark of death, life is here barely sustainable and by great efforts. Death always appears as an escape, one ignores the possibilities of the hereafter, and as the way death is experienced is partly dependent on feeling and perspective, it might be quite an acceptable solution. If one in statu mortis could manage a pose (a poem, a gesture, to ‘die standing up’), i.e. a final anchoring, or a final distraction (Aases’ death), then such a fate is not the worst one at all. The press, for once serving the concealment mechanism, never fails to find reasons that cause no alarm – “it is believed that the latest fall in the price of wheat...”

When a human being takes his life in depression, this is a natural death of spiritual causes. The modern barbarity of ‘saving’ the suicidal is based on a hairraising misapprehension of the nature of existence.

Only a limited part of humanity can make do with mere ‘changes’, whether in work, social life, or entertainment. The cultured person demands connections, lines, a progression in the changes. Nothing finite satisfies at length, one is ever proceeding, gathering knowledge, making a career. The phenomenon is known as ‘yearning’ or ‘transcendental tendency.’ Whenever a goal is reached, the yearning moves on; hence its object is not the goal, but the very attainment of it – the gradient, not the absolute height, of the curve representing one’s life. The promotion from private to corporal may give a more valuable experience than the one from colonel to general. Any grounds of ‘progressive optimism’ are removed by this major psychological law.

The human yearning is not merely marked by a ‘striving toward’, but equally by an ‘escape from.’ And if we use the word in a religious sense, only the latter description fits. For here, none has yet been clear about what he is longing for, but one has always a heartfelt awareness of what one is longing away from, namely the earthly vale of tears, one’s own inendurable condition. If awareness of this predicament is the deepest stratum of the soul, as argued above, then it is also understandable why the religious yearning is felt and experienced as fundamental. By contrast, the hope that it forms a divine criterion, which harbours a promise of its own fulfilment, is placed in a truly melancholy light by these considerations.

The fourth remedy against panic, sublimation, is a matter of transformation rather than repression. Through stylistic or artistic gifts can the very pain of living at times be converted into valuable experiences. Positive impulses engage the evil and put it to their own ends, fastening onto its pictorial, dramatic, heroic, lyric or even comic aspects.

Unless the worst sting of suffering is blunted by other means, or denied control of the mind, such utilisation is unlikely, however. (Image: The mountaineer does not enjoy his view of the abyss while choking with vertigo; only when this feeling is more or less overcome does he enjoy it – anchored.) To write a tragedy, one must to some extent free oneself from – betray – the very feeling of tragedy and regard it from an outer, e.g. aesthetic, point of view. Here is, by the way, an opportunity for the wildest round-dancing through ever higher ironic levels, into a most embarrassing circulus vitiosus. Here one can chase one’s ego across numerous habitats, enjoying the capacity of the various layers of consciousness to dispel one another.

The present essay is a typical attempt at sublimation. The author does not suffer, he is filling pages and is going to be published in a journal.

The ‘martyrdom’ of lonely ladies also shows a kind of sublimation – they gain in significance thereby.

Nevertheless, sublimation appears to be the rarest of the protective means mentioned here.


IV

Is it possible for ‘primitive natures’ to renounce these cramps and cavorts and live in harmony with themselves in the serene bliss of labour and love? Insofar as they may be considered human at all, I think the answer must be no. The strongest claim to be made about the so-called peoples of nature is that they are somewhat closer to the wonderful biological ideal than we unnatural people. And when even we have so far been able to save a majority through every storm, we have been assisted by the sides of our nature that are just modestly or moderately developed. This positive basis (as protection alone cannot create life, only hinder its faltering) must be sought in the naturally adapted deployment of the energy in the body and the biologically helpful parts of the soul1, subject to such hardships as are precisely due to sensory limitations, bodily frailty, and the need to do work for life and love.

And just in this finite land of bliss within the fronts do the progressing civilisation, technology and standardisation have such a debasing influence. For as an ever growing fraction of the cognitive faculties retire from the game against the environment, there is a rising spiritual unemployment. The value of a technical advance to the whole undertaking of life must be judged by its contribution to the human opportunity for spiritual occupation. Though boundaries are blurry, perhaps the first tools for cutting might be mentioned as a case of a positive invention.

Other technical inventions enrich only the life of the inventor himself; they represent a gross and ruthless theft from humankind’s common reserve of experiences and should invoke the harshest punishment if made public against the veto of censorship. One such crime among numerous others is the use of flying machines to explore uncharted land. In a single vandalistic glob, one thus destroys lush opportunities for experience that could benefit many if each, by effort, obtained his fair share.2

The current phase of life’s chronic fever is particularly tainted by this circumstance. The absence of naturally (biologically) based spiritual activity shows up, for example, in the pervasive recourse to distraction (entertainment, sport, radio – ‘the rhythm of the times’). Terms for anchoring are not as favourable – all the inherited, collective systems of anchorings are punctured by criticism, and anxiety, disgust, confusion, despair leak in through the rifts (‘corpses in the cargo.’) Communism and psychoanalysis, however incommensurable otherwise, both attempt (as Communism has also a spiritual reflection) by novel means to vary the old escape anew; applying, respectively, violence and guile to make humans biologically fit by ensnaring their critical surplus of cognition. The idea, in either case, is uncannily logical. But again, it cannot yield a final solution. Though a deliberate degeneration to a more viable nadir may certainly save the species in the short run, it will by its nature be unable to find peace in such resignation, or indeed find any peace at all.


V

If we continue these considerations to the bitter end, then the conclusion is not in doubt. As long as humankind recklessly proceeds in the fateful delusion of being biologically fated for triumph, nothing essential will change. As its numbers mount and the spiritual atmosphere thickens, the techniques of protection must assume an increasingly brutal character.

And humans will persist in dreaming of salvation and affirmation and a new Messiah. Yet when many saviours have been nailed to trees and stoned on the city squares, then the last Messiah shall come.

Then will appear the man who, as the first of all, has dared strip his soul naked and submit it alive to the outmost thought of the lineage, the very idea of doom. A man who has fathomed life and its cosmic ground, and whose pain is the Earth’s collective pain. With what furious screams shall not mobs of all nations cry out for his thousandfold death, when like a cloth his voice encloses the globe, and the strange message has resounded for the first and last time:

“– The life of the worlds is a roaring river, but Earth’s is a pond and a backwater.

– The sign of doom is written on your brows – how long will ye kick against the pin-pricks?

– But there is one conquest and one crown, one redemption and one solution.

– Know yourselves – be infertile and let the earth be silent after ye.”

And when he has spoken, they will pour themselves over him, led by the pacifier makers and the midwives, and bury him in their fingernails.

He is the last Messiah. As son from father, he stems from the archer by the waterhole.

Peter Wessel Zapffe, 1933

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 楼主| 发表于 2019-6-23 21:28 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 chenpony 于 2019-6-25 12:32 编辑






I



One night in long bygone times, man awoke and saw himself.

一个往昔的长夜里,一个男人醒来,审视自己的存在。


He saw that he was naked under cosmos, homeless in his own body. All things dissolved before his testing thought, wonder above wonder, horror above horror unfolded in his mind.

他看到自己在天穹下赤身裸体,困在形躯中无处可去。一切事物都在他的审视下分崩离析,思虑叠着思虑,惊惧伴着惊惧,在他的脑海中融化开来。


Then woman too awoke and said it was time to go and slay. And he fetched his bow and arrow, a fruit of the marriage of spirit and hand, and went outside beneath the stars. But as the beasts arrived at their waterholes where he expected them of habit, he felt no more the tiger’s bound in his blood, but a great psalm about the brotherhood of suffering between everything alive.

然后女人也醒来了,说他应该去杀戮饮血。于是他带上弓和箭——这是他慧心巧手的造物,在星夜下离开。但当野兽到达他意料之中的饮水点时,他不再能感应到这猛虎与他血肉的羁绊,取而代之的则是一种链接所有生命的苦难,如手足情谊般情感的伟大赞歌。


That day he did not return with prey, and when they found him by the next new moon, he was sitting dead by the waterhole.

那天他没有满载而归,当他们在下一次新月找到他时,他已经坐着,在那个水塘边死去。


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 楼主| 发表于 2019-6-24 20:21 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 chenpony 于 2019-6-26 20:01 编辑

II

Whatever happened? A breach in the very unity of life, a biological paradox, an abomination, an absurdity, an exaggeration of disastrous nature. Life had overshot its target, blowing itself apart. A species had been armed too heavily – by spirit made almighty without, but equally a menace to its own well-being. Its weapon was like a sword without hilt or plate, a two-edged blade cleaving everything; but he who is to wield it must grasp the blade and turn the one edge toward himself.
究竟发生了什么呢?这是一次对生命整体的僭越,一个生物学上的悖论,它令人作呕,荒谬至极,对天地的不仁言过其实。生命冲出了它的轨道,把自己炸得稀碎。一个物种被其精神武装得过于沉重,精神同时又是他存在的威胁。这武器如同一支无柄无把的利剑,其双刃能砍断世间的一切。但试图挥动这把宝剑的人只能紧握它的剑刃,也必然将两锋之一对准他自己。


Despite his new eyes, man was still rooted in matter, his soul spun into it and subordinated to its blind laws. And yet he could see matter as a stranger, compare himself to all phenomena, see through and locate his vital processes. He comes to nature as an unbidden guest, in vain extending his arms to beg conciliation with his maker: Nature answers no more, it performed a miracle with man, but later did not know him. He has lost his right of residence in the universe, has eaten from the Tree of Knowledge and been expelled from Paradise. He is mighty in the near world, but curses his might as purchased with his harmony of soul, his innocence, his inner peace in life’s embrace.

尽管有了崭新的眼光,男人依然困于红尘,他的精神打着旋抵达这个世界,屈服于世界盲目的戒律之下。他可以把尘世当作一个局外之人,将他自己与一切现象作比,又看穿它们,找到自己存在的位置。他是天地间的不速之客,徒劳地伸出双臂祈求与上天和解:天地不再回答,它先为他展现神迹,又对他素昧平生。他失去了在世上安身立命的权限,他吃下了智慧之果,被逐出了伊甸园。他在能在近似的世界中驱使力量,但他用灵魂和谐、清白纯真、内心平和来换取力量的同时,也受到了力量的报应。


So there he stands with his visions, betrayed by the universe, in wonder and fear. The beast knew fear as well, in thunderstorms and on the lion’s claw. But man became fearful of life itself – indeed, of his very being. Life – that was for the beast to feel the play of power, it was heat and games and strife and hunger, and then at last to bow before the law of course. In the beast, suffering is self-confined, in man, it knocks holes into a fear of the world and a despair of life. Even as the child sets out on the river of life, the roars from the waterfall of death rise highly above the vale, ever closer, and tearing, tearing at its joy. Man beholds the earth, and it is breathing like a great lung; whenever it exhales, delightful life swarms from all its pores and reaches out toward the sun, but when it inhales, a moan of rupture passes through the multitude, and corpses whip the ground like bouts of hail. Not merely his own day could he see, the graveyards wrung themselves before his gaze, the laments of sunken millennia wailed against him from the ghastly decaying shapes, the earth-turned dreams of mothers. Future’s curtain unravelled itself to reveal a nightmare of endless repetition, a senseless squander of organic material. The suffering of human billions makes its entrance into him through the gateway of compassion, from all that happen arises a laughter to mock the demand for justice, his profoundest ordering principle. He sees himself emerge in his mother’s womb, he holds up his hand in the air and it has five branches; whence this devilish number five, and what has it to do with my soul? He is no longer obvious to himself – he touches his body in utter horror; this is you and so far do you extend and no farther. He carries a meal within him, yesterday it was a beast that could itself dash around, now I suck it up and make it part of me, and where do I begin and end? All things chain together in causes and effects, and everything he wants to grasp dissolves before the testing thought. Soon he sees mechanics even in the so-far whole and dear, in the smile of his beloved – there are other smiles as well, a torn boot with toes. Eventually, the features of things are features only of himself. Nothing exists without himself, every line points back at him, the world is but a ghostly echo of his voice – he leaps up loudly screaming and wants to disgorge himself onto the earth along with his impure meal, he feels the looming of madness and wants to find death before losing even such ability.

于是他站立着,伴着他的所见,被宇宙所抛弃,陷入思虑与惊惧之中。野兽也懂得恐惧,那恐惧来自暴雨雷电和狮子的利爪。但男人的恐惧指向生命本身——确切说来,是指向他自己的生命。生命——这让那个野兽得以发挥它的力量,它是体温,是竞争,是冲突也是饥饿,最终也要屈躬于自然之律。对于那个野兽来说,苦难是闭环的,对于那个人类来说,苦难戳穿了这个空洞,让他进入对世界的恐惧与对生命的绝望中。即使是一个孩童走入生命之河,死亡瀑布的咆哮也会穿过千岩万壑,朝他扑面而来,以满足的姿态撕裂一切。男人俯瞰大地,俯瞰这个吐雾吞云的巨兽;当大地呼气时,愉悦的生命从它的各个毛孔涌出来,追逐着日光,而当大地吸气时,撕心裂肺的呼啸穿过万物,尸体如冰雹一般溅落。他不仅可以看到今时今日,他的墓地也在凝视下扭曲变形,沉没千年时光的哀诗以苍白腐坏的形态在他面前哭号而过,地球成为了万物母亲的梦。未来的帷幕落下,揭示着它自己不过是一个无限循环的噩梦,一种有机质料无意义的浪费。亿万人的痛苦以他的同情心为门户一拥而入,嘲笑着他对公义的要求,嘲笑他最深邃的,对道义的渴望。他看到自己在母亲的子宫中涌现,他朝着天空举起手,看着手掌上伸出的这五个分叉;这分叉的恶魔数“5”从何而来?与我的灵魂又有何关系?他的身体对他来说不再一目了然——他以极度的恐惧触摸自己,这就是你自己,这是你横向而非纵向的延续。他的身体盛着他昨天的一餐,这顿饭昨天还是一只横冲直撞的野兽,被我吃下之后成为了我身体的一部分,那我又从何而来,要到哪里去呢?所有事物都被因果联系起来,所有他想要触及的,都在他审视的目光下消解。很快,他在爱人身上也看到了宇宙的结构,在他爱人的笑容中——也包括其他的笑容,比如被脚趾磨破而开口大笑的靴子中。最后他发现,他看到的事物特征只是他本人的特征。没有他,万事万物都不存在,每一个因果都回归于他,世界不过是他话语鬼魅般的回响——他呼天抢地,想要让他和他不洁的一餐都回归地球表面,他感到疯癫的迫近,他想要在失去自尽的能力前死亡。


But as he stands before imminent death, he grasps its nature also, and the cosmic import of the step to come. His creative imagination constructs new, fearful prospects behind the curtain of death, and he sees that even there is no sanctuary found. And now he can discern the outline of his biologicocosmic terms: He is the universe’s helpless captive, kept to fall into nameless possibilities.

但正当他抵达死亡之前的一刻,他也掌握了死亡的本质,宇宙向他揭示了未来。他的想象力在死亡的帷幕后建立了一个新的,可怖的前景,他甚至看到了庇护所不存在时会是怎样的结局。他能辨识出他宇宙生物学的轮廓:它是宇宙无可奈何的笼中鸟,在无名可能性的深渊不断下坠。


From this moment on, he is in a state of relentless panic.

自此之后,他陷入了无尽的恐慌中。


Such a ‘feeling of cosmic panic’ is pivotal to every human mind. Indeed, the race appears destined to perish in so far as any effective preservation and continuation of life is ruled out when all of the individual’s attention and energy goes to endure, or relay, the catastrophic high tension within.

这样的“宇宙恐慌感”对每个人的意识都至关重要。事实上,当这个种族每个个体的精力和体力都消耗在忍耐,传递恐慌情绪,消耗在种族内灾难性的高压中,而一切有效的保护和延续生命的手段都失效时,这个种族似乎注定要灭亡。


The tragedy of a species becoming unfit for life by overevolving one ability is not confined to humankind. Thus it is thought, for instance, that certain deer in paleontological times succumbed as they acquired overly-heavy horns. The mutations must be considered blind, they work, are thrown forth, without any contact of interest with their environment.

一个物种因为过度发展某种能力而变得不适于生存的经验并不与人类绝缘。对于思想来说也是如此,例如远古时期,有一种鹿被认定由于生长了过重的角而灭绝。突变绝对是盲目的,突变可能生效,可能失效,不会对环境有丝毫的眷恋。


In depressive states, the mind may be seen in the image of such an antler, in all its fantastic splendour pinning its bearer to the ground.

在抑郁的状态下,心灵也与鹿角无异,不过都是将它们的堂而皇之的携带者钉在地上而已。

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 楼主| 发表于 2019-6-25 16:10 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 chenpony 于 2019-6-26 23:29 编辑

III (part1)

Why, then, has mankind not long ago gone extinct during great epidemics of madness? Why do only a fairly minor number of individuals perish because they fail to endure the strain of living – because cognition gives them more than they can carry?

那么为什么,人类没有在千年以前,就因疯癫的肆虐而灭绝呢?为什么只有相对较少的一群个体无法承担生命的重担——这压迫是认知所给予——而早夭呢?


Cultural history, as well as observation of ourselves and others, allow the following answer: Most people learn to save themselves by artificially limiting the content of consciousness.

从文化历史,也从我们审视自身和他人的角度来说,能给出这样的答案:大部分人学会了依靠人工限制意识边界的方式而存活下来。


If the giant deer, at suitable intervals, had broken off the outer spears of its antlers, it might have kept going for some while longer. Yet in fever and constant pain, indeed, in betrayal of its central idea, the core of its peculiarity, for it was vocated by creation’s hand to be the horn bearer of wild animals. What it gained in continuance, it would lose in significance, in grandness of life, in other words a continuance without hope, a march not up to affirmation, but forth across its ever recreated ruins, a self-destructive race against the sacred will of blood.

如果那只巨鹿能以适当的频率折断它高耸突兀的鹿角,那它或许还能多活一段时间。随之而来的则是感染的炎症,持续的痛苦,因为它背叛了先天的理念,背叛了它的独特性,背叛了造物者之手所赐予它的,那只有角野兽的原型。它在生命的延续中所得到的不义之财,也必将在其生命的意义与伟大中所失去,换句话说,这是一种绝望的延续,一次不走向肯定,而走向不断重建的废墟的行进,一个自我毁灭的,违背其天性的径赛。


The identity of purpose and perishment is, for giant deer and man alike, the tragic paradox of life. In devoted Bejahung, the last Cervis Giganticus bore the badge of its lineage to its end. The human being saves itself and carries on. It performs, to extend a settled phrase, a more or less self-conscious repression of its damaging surplus of consciousness. This process is virtually constant during our waking and active hours, and is a requirement of social adaptability and of everything commonly referred to as healthy and normal living.

对于巨鹿与人类来说,其存在的目的就是其存在的终结,这即是生命悲剧的悖论。在献身于“认定(Bejahung)”的过程中,最后的“擎天鹿(Cervis Giganticus)”把它血脉的纹章带到了它的终结。而人类自我保全,活了下去。这种保护表现为一种——一言蔽之就是——或多或少的,自我意识对意识过剩所造成损害的压抑。这个过程在我们清醒活跃的时段是持续不变的,这个过程也是一种对社会的适应性和一切“日常”得以实现的要求。


Psychiatry even works on the assumption that the ‘healthy’ and viable is at one with the highest in personal terms. Depression, ‘fear of life,’ refusal of nourishment and so on are invariably taken as signs of a pathological state and treated thereafter. Often, however, such phenomena are messages from a deeper, more immediate sense of life, bitter fruits of a geniality of thought or feeling at the root of antibiological tendencies. It is not the soul being sick, but its protection failing, or else being rejected because it is experienced – correctly – as a betrayal of ego’s highest potential.

精神病学甚至建立在这样的假设之上:需要从每个个体的最佳状态来进而确定“健全”和可存续的状态。抑郁,对“死生亦大矣”的恐惧,拒绝饮食等等状况都被视作病态的,也因此需要被治疗的病征。然而,这些现象往往只是冰山一角,它实际要展现的,是对生活更深也更直接的感知,一种根植于反生命天性的思想或感触的苦果。这不是精神生了病,而是精神的保护机制失效了,或者说,是被拒绝了,这个保护机制之娴熟辜负了自我意识的最大潜力。


The whole of living that we see before our eyes today is from inmost to outmost enmeshed in repressional mechanisms, social and individual; they can be traced right into the tritest formulas of everyday life. Though they take a vast and multifarious variety of forms, it seems legitimate to at least identify four major kinds, naturally occuring in every possible combination: isolation, anchoring, distraction and sublimation.

我们今天放眼可见的生活,由内及外,都陷入了压抑的机制中,社会和个人都是如此;甚至可以从那些家常流俗中追溯到这种压抑。它虽然会表现为不同形式的现象,但我们至少能列出四种基本情况,以此组合出所有可能出现的情景:隔离、锚定、分心、升华。


By isolation I here mean a fully arbitrary dismissal from consciousness of all disturbing and destructive thought and feeling. (Engström: “One should not think, it is just confusing.”) A perfect and almost brutalising variant is found among certain physicians, who for self-protection will only see the technical aspect of their profession. It can also decay to pure hooliganism, as among petty thugs and medical students, where any sensitivity to the tragic side of life is eradicated by violent means (football played with cadaver heads, and so on.)

之于“隔离”,我这里的意思是对意识中所有令人惶恐和自毁性的思想或感受进行完全非理性地抛弃。(正如Engström所言,“人本不应思,思考使人痴”。)这个机制有一种完美,甚至是残酷的变体,某些医生的自我保护机制能让他们只见到其专业对应的那部分机理(而非病人的全貌)。这个机制也会退化为纯粹的暴力和混乱,就像在小混混和医学生(注意此文写于1933年的挪威!)中一样,以暴力为手段来消除生活中的一切苦楚(如用尸体的头部当足球踢,等等。)


In everyday interaction, isolation is manifested in a general code of mutual silence: primarily toward children, so these are not at once scared senseless by the life they have just begun, but retain their illusions until they can afford to lose them. In return, children are not to bother the adults with untimely reminders of sex, toilet, or death. Among adults there are the rules of ‘tact,’ the mechanism being openly displayed when a man who weeps on the street is removed with police assistance.

在日常的交流中,隔离表现为一种广泛的,相互缄默的习惯:主要针对孩童,这样孩童便不会一出世就被他们生命的无意义吓退,而是保留其童真的幻想,直到他们的思维能力足以抛弃这样的幻想。作为回报,成人也得以从孩童不合时宜地,对性,厕所和死亡的提问中解脱出来。成年人则自有一套“城府”,有人在公共场合大嚎啕大哭而被警察带走时,这个“城府”的机制展露无疑。

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 楼主| 发表于 2019-6-26 19:54 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 chenpony 于 2019-6-29 00:19 编辑

III (part2)

The mechanism of anchoring also serves from early childhood; parents, home, the street become matters of course to the child and give it a sense of assurance. This sphere of experience is the first, and perhaps the happiest, protection against the cosmos that we ever get to know in life, a fact that doubtless also explains the much debated ‘infantile bonding;’ the question of whether that is sexually tainted too is unimportant here. When the child later discovers that those fixed points are as ‘arbitrary’ and ‘ephemeral’ as any others, it has a crisis of confusion and anxiety and promptly looks around for another anchoring. “In Autumn, I will attend middle school.” If the substitution somehow fails, then the crisis may take a fatal course, or else what I will call an anchoring spasmoccurs: One clings to the dead values, concealing as well as possible from oneself and others the fact that they are unworkable, that one is spiritually insolvent. The result is lasting insecurity, ‘feelings of inferiority,’ over-compensation, restlessness. Insofar as this state falls into certain categories, it is made subject to psychoanalytic treatment, which aims to complete the transition to new anchorings.

锚定机制也适用于早期的孩童;父母、家庭、街坊自然让孩童无所适从,也因此给予孩童一种保证感。这是我们最初能经历的,也或许是我们对抗这个无可抗力的宇宙时,最开心的体验,这也是争议纷纭“幼时情谊”一个无可争辩的解释;至于这个现象是否被性所“玷污”已经无关紧要。当孩童发现自己的锚定点与其他点一样“未经三思”,又“譬如朝露”时,就会处于一种困惑且焦虑的危机中,这危机迫使他立即环顾四周,寻找下一个锚点。(孩子会说)“到了秋天,我就该上中学了。”如果锚点的转移过程失效,那这样的危机就可能变得致命,或者变成一种我称之为“锚挛”的情况:他抱持着已死的价值观,向他自己和所有旁人极力隐瞒他已经是不可雕琢朽木的事实,这样的人已经无可救药了。其结果就是持续的不安,“自鄙”,过度代偿,坐立不宁。只要这个状态陷入某个特定的种类,就要依照精神分析的方法,完成向新锚点转移的过程。


Anchoring might be characterised as a fixation of points within, or construction of walls around, the liquid fray of consciousness. Though typically unconscious, it may also be fully conscious (one ‘adopts a goal’.) Publicly useful anchorings are met with sympathy, he who ‘sacrifices himself totally’ for his anchoring (the firm, the cause) is idolised. He has established a mighty bulwark against the dissolution of life, and others are by suggestion gaining from his strength. In a brutalised form, as deliberate action, it is found among ‘decadent’ playboys (“one should get married in time, and then the constraints will come of themselves.”) Thus one establishes a necessity in one’s life, exposing oneself to an obvious evil from one’s point of view, but a soothing of the nerves, a high-walled container for a sensibility to life that has been growing increasingly crude. Ibsen presents, in Hjalmar Ekdal and Molvik, two flowering cases (‘living lies’); there is no difference between their anchoring and that of the pillars of society except for the practico-economic unproductiveness of the former.

锚定过程可以被表征为在心灵中找到一个支点,或是建立起自己的心理防壁,行云流水地磨去自我意识的棱角。虽然锚定一般是无意识的过程,但也完全可以是有意而为的(如某人“找到了目标”。)对公众有益的锚定常常让人感同身受,一个人为了其锚点(他的功名事业)而“舍身取义”的故事被社会所崇拜。他筑起了防止自己生命解体的堡垒,而旁人则被建议从他恢弘的堡垒的建设经验中获益。以一种不加三思的形式,也作为一种刻意之举,这种锚定也存在于对那些“放荡”花花公子的劝诫中(“及时结婚,然后尊夫妇之伦”)因此人们为自己的生命建立起了一种必须,虽然这是将自己置于显而易见的恶行之下,但也得到了神经的缓释,其围城中的自我意识也变得愈加麻痹。在易卜生的作品中,他借《野鸭》中雅尔马•艾克达尔和莫尔维克之口,表现了两个对应的案例(所谓“生命之谎言”);他们的锚点与社会支柱的锚点除前者在经济上不可能实现外毫无区别。


Any culture is a great, rounded system of anchorings, built on foundational firmaments, the basic cultural ideas. The average person makes do with the collective firmaments, the personality is building for himself, the person of character has finished his construction, more or less grounded on the inherited, collective main firmaments (God, the Church, the State, morality, fate, the law of life, the people, the future). The closer to main firmaments a certain carrying element is, the more perilous it is to touch. Here a direct protection is normally established by means of penal codes and threats of prosecution (inquisition, censorship, the Conservative approach to life).

所有文化都是一个庞大且全面的锚索体系,被基本文化概念构成的穹顶而笼罩。常人的人生与集体的穹顶相伴,他要为自己建立人格,而他建成的人格又或多或少的,与集体的穹顶有沿袭的关系(如神祇、宗教组织、国家、道德、命运、生命戒律、人民、未来)。一个事物其内含的文化概念越是靠近这个穹顶的基础,触犯这些天条就有越大的危险。这个层面一般通过建立刑法典和以诉讼威胁(如审讯、审查、保守的生活取向)来加以保护。


The carrying capacity of each segment either depends on its fictitious nature having not been seen through yet, or else on its being recognised as necessary anyway. Hence the religious education in schools, which even atheists support because they know no other way to bring children into social ways of response.

天穹每个部分的承载能力要么取决于它虚伪一面未被公之于众的程度,要么取决于这部分对于社会建构必要性的大小。因此即使是无神论者也会支持在学校中进行宗教教育,因为他们不知道如何用其他方式将孩童迎入社会。


Whenever people realise the fictitiousness or redundancy of the segments, they will strive to replace them with new ones (‘the limited duration of Truths’) – and whence flows all the spiritual and cultural strife which, along with economic competition, forms the dynamic content of world history.

每当人们意识到这些构件的虚伪或无必要的时候,人们就会竭力用新的构件(“这稍纵即逝的毕露原型”)取代它们——并由此激起所有精神与文化上的冲突波澜,与经济上的竞争一起,构筑了动态的世界历史。


The craving for material goods (power) is not so much due to the direct pleasures of wealth, as none can be seated on more than one chair or eat himself more than sated. Rather, the value of a fortune to life consists in the rich opportunities for anchoring and distraction offered to the owner.

对物质(亦即权力)的渴望并不主要来自与对财富欢愉的追求,因为没人可以坐两把椅子,也没人可以比他饱腹时吃得更多。相反,财富之于生命的价值存在于其能为拥有者提供丰富的锚点和分心的机会。


Both for collective and individual anchorings it holds that when a segment breaks, there is a crisis that is graver the closer that segment to main firmaments. Within the inner circles, sheltered by the outer ramparts, such crises are daily and fairly painfree occurrences (‘disappointments’); even a playing with anchoring values is here seen (wittiness, jargon, alcohol). But during such play one may accidentally rip a hole right to the bottom, and the scene is instantly transformed from euphoric to macabre. The dread of being stares us in the eye, and in a deadly gush we perceive how the minds are dangling in threads of their own spinning, and that a hell is lurking underneath.

对于集体和个体的锚点所在的文化构件而言,当这个构件失效时,如果它的位置越接近穹顶的基础,那个体和集体要面临的危机就越严重。在被外部文化围城所保护的个人内心中,如此的危机是日常而无痛的常事(所谓“沮丧”);我们甚至可以观察到用锚点耍把戏的现象(调侃、黑话、酗酒)。但在这样的把戏中,一个人可能会戳穿穹顶,跌入现实,场面就会一下子从诙谐变得可怖。我们害怕被他人直视双眼,在这些致命的对谈里,我们能察觉到思绪如何被开动的脑筋所诱惑,而地狱般的后果就潜藏于其中。


The very foundational firmaments are rarely replaced without great social spasms and a risk of complete dissolution (reformation, revolution). During such times, individuals are increasingly left to their own devices for anchoring, and the number of failures tends to rise. Depressions, excesses, and suicides result (German officers after the war, Chinese students after the revolution).

如果社会没有巨大的震荡与完全解体(如改革与革命)的风险,那文化天穹最基础的构件就几乎不会被替换。在这样的情况下,个体会越来越被孤立于其锚定的那个文化构件上,而锚定失败的危险也会趋于增加。后果则是蔓延的沮丧、放纵和自杀。


Another flaw of the system is the fact that various danger fronts often require very different firmaments. As a logical superstructure is built upon each, there follow clashes of incommensurable modes of feeling and thought. Then despair can enter through the rifts. In such cases, a person may be obsessed with destructive joy, dislodging the whole artificial apparatus of his life and starting with rapturous horror to make a clean sweep of it. The horror stems from the loss of all sheltering values, the rapture from his by now ruthless identification and harmony with our nature’s deepest secret, the biological unsoundness, the enduring disposition for doom.

这个锚索体系的另一个缺陷,就是各种危机实际根植于差异极大的构件中。由于逻辑的上层结构需要以这些构件为基础相互依存,因此就存在不同感受和思想不可调和的冲突。绝望的情绪就可以乘虚而入。在这些情况下,一个人可能会沉湎于毁灭的快乐,他会抛弃他生命中所有的人造结构,并以狂热和恐惧来将生命一扫而净。恐惧来自于所有保护性机制的消逝,而狂热则来自于他终于能无情地自认,并与自然最深切的秘密和谐共处,与他生物学上的存在漏洞,对毁灭倾向的忍耐共存。


We love the anchorings for saving us, but also hate them for limiting our sense of freedom. Whenever we feel strong enough, we thus take pleasure in going together to bury an expired value in style. Material objects take on a symbolic import here (the Radical approach to life).

我们喜爱锚定,因为它使我们得以保全,但也因为它对我们自由意识的限制而憎恨它。每当我们觉得自己的心灵足够强大,我们就会一起颇有风度地,快乐地埋葬已过期的价值。物质对象在此处以象征意义引入(激进的生活取向)。


When a human being has eliminated those of his anchorings that are visible to himself, only the unconscious ones staying put, then he will call himself a liberated personality.

当一个人消除了所有他自觉的锚点,只留下那些无意识所锚定的锚点时,那他就能宣称自己的人格已被解放。

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 楼主| 发表于 2019-6-29 00:23 | 显示全部楼层

III (part3)


A very popular mode of protection is distraction. One limits attention to the critical bounds by constantly enthralling it with impressions. This is typical even in childhood; without distraction, the child is also insufferable to itself. “Mom, what am I to do.” A little English girl visiting her Norwegian aunts came inside from her room, saying: “What happens now?” The nurses attain virtuosity: Look, a doggie! Watch, they are painting the palace! The phenomenon is too familiar to require any further demonstration. Distraction is, for example, the ‘high society’s’ tactic for living. It can be likened to a flying machine – made of heavy material, but embodying a principle that keeps it airborne whenever applying. It must always be in motion, as air only carries it fleetingly. The pilot may grow drowsy and comfortable out of habit, but the crisis is acute as soon as the engine flunks.

另一个被广泛采用的保护模式叫做分心,个人可以通过沉湎于某些感触来转移注意力,从而限制对天地之问的关注程度。即使在童年时代也是如此;如果没有分心这个手段,孩童也无法承担其存在之重。(孩子会说)“妈妈,我该做什么呢?”一个英国的小女孩拜访她挪威的婶婶,她走进房间问着:“现在如何呢?”,(照顾她婶婶的)护士则会惟妙惟肖,不露声色地回答:“瞧啊,这有只小狗狗!看啊,有人在粉刷城堡呢!”这类现象太过平常,我想不用再做进一步的解释。分心就是,比方说,就是“上流社会”的生活策略。我们可以把分心比作一个由重型材料制造的,只要想使用就能够飞行的飞行器。这架飞心机必须时时处于高速飞行中,否则浮云便无法给予飞心机足够的升力。飞心机的驾驶员可能会疲劳驾驶,可能会疏于职守,但只要飞心机的引擎出现问题,危机就会转瞬即至。


The tactic is often fully conscious. Despair may dwell right underneath and break through in gushes, in a sudden sobbing. When all distractive options are expended, spleen sets in, ranging from mild indifference to fatal depression. Women, in general less cognition-prone and hence more secure in their living than men, preferably use distraction.

分心常常是自觉而为之的。对生命的绝望可能就潜藏在不期而至的啜泣中,随时可能爆发出来。当分心的所有可选项都暂不可用后,忧郁就会占据心灵的主导,其程度可以是轻微的冷漠,也可以是致命的抑郁。女性通常更少以认知为导向,所以其自保的机制也就比男性更强大,更适合于使用分心这一手段。


A considerable evil of imprisonment is the denial of most distractive options. And as terms for deliverance by other means are poor as well, the prisoner will tend to stay in the close vicinity of despair. The acts he then commits to deflect the final stage have a warrant in the principle of vitality itself. In such a moment he is experiencing his soul within the universe, and has no other motive than the utter inendurability of that condition.

监禁有一个非常可恶的特点,就是它能排除被监禁者大部分可用于分心的选项。同时被监禁者其他的自扰手段也无法顺利施展,因此被监禁者会常常徘徊于绝望的边缘。他之后为了自救所做的一切保全,实际都以生命渴求持续的原则为证。监禁就是要让他进入寓形于宇内的状态,让他除了忍耐这一完全不可忍耐的痛苦外别无所想。


Pure examples of life-panic are presumably rare, as the protective mechanisms are refined and automatic and to some extent unremitting. But even the adjacent terrain bears the mark of death, life is here barely sustainable and by great efforts. Death always appears as an escape, one ignores the possibilities of the hereafter, and as the way death is experienced is partly dependent on feeling and perspective, it might be quite an acceptable solution. If one in statu mortis could manage a pose (a poem, a gesture, to ‘die standing up’), i.e. a final anchoring, or a final distraction (Aases’ death), then such a fate is not the worst one at all. The press, for once serving the concealment mechanism, never fails to find reasons that cause no alarm – “it is believed that the latest fall in the price of wheat...”

纯粹只是恐惧生命本身的案例大概并不多见,因为精神的自我保护机制娴熟而自然,会在无意识中自动运转,某种意义上来说也是绝不休止的。即使只是临近的态势中带有了死亡的标记,生命就会在这一点上付出几乎不可持续的巨大努力(来避免人一窥死亡的真实)。死亡总是一种逃避的选项,选择死亡的人无视了其后生命的可能性,作为逃避选项的死亡,其死亡体验也部分受选择人的感受和权衡来决定,某些条件下,死亡也是一种可选的解决方案。如果一个人在殒命时能故作某个姿态(如一首诗,一个姿势,从而得以“站着死”),也相当于做临终的锚定,或一次临终的分心(如奥丝之死),他的死亡命运就不至于满盘皆输。而作为服务于那个瞒天昧地机制的大众媒体,它化死亡于无形又言之有理的能力也从未让我们失望——“最近小麦的降价据信...”


When a human being takes his life in depression, this is a natural death of spiritual causes. The modern barbarity of ‘saving’ the suicidal is based on a hairraising misapprehension of the nature of existence.

一个人因抑郁而自尽是一种出于精神原因的自然死亡。现代社会对自杀者“野蛮”拯救的伦理,则建立在现代社会对存在天性无知又惊惧的误解之上。


Only a limited part of humanity can make do with mere ‘changes’, whether in work, social life, or entertainment. The cultured person demands connections, lines, a progression in the changes. Nothing finite satisfies at length, one is ever proceeding, gathering knowledge, making a career. The phenomenon is known as ‘yearning’ or ‘transcendental tendency.’ Whenever a goal is reached, the yearning moves on; hence its object is not the goal, but the very attainment of it – the gradient, not the absolute height, of the curve representing one’s life. The promotion from private to corporal may give a more valuable experience than the one from colonel to general. Any grounds of ‘progressive optimism’ are removed by this major psychological law.

只有为数不多的一部分人能勉强作出“改变”,无论是在工作中,社交生活中还是在娱乐中。“文化人”的生存需要与他人的联系,需要社会关系,需要在变化中得以进步。即使是千秋大业也无法满足人类,人类非要勇往直前,不断求知,建立功业不可。这种现象被称作“执求”,或是“超人倾向”。当某个目标完成时,“执求”也会迎头赶上;因为“向往”所追求的不是目标本身,而是目标的实现——不是追求一个人生命曲线的绝对高度,而是追求他生命曲线的陡峭程度。任何“渐进乐观主义”的基础在这一主要的心理法则面前都荡然无存。


The human yearning is not merely marked by a ‘striving toward’, but equally by an ‘escape from.’ And if we use the word in a religious sense, only the latter description fits. For here, none has yet been clear about what he is longing for, but one has always a heartfelt awareness of what one is longing away from, namely the earthly vale of tears, one’s own inendurable condition. If awareness of this predicament is the deepest stratum of the soul, as argued above, then it is also understandable why the religious yearning is felt and experienced as fundamental. By contrast, the hope that it forms a divine criterion, which harbours a promise of its own fulfilment, is placed in a truly melancholy light by these considerations.

人类的向往不仅是“奋勇向前”,也是“逃离苦难”。如果我们想要在宗教意义上使用“执求”一词,那只有后者符合它此时的含义。因为在这个意义上,没有人清楚他们究竟想抵达怎样的境地,但却总能从心底里意识到他们所想逃离的地方,即红尘之泪,即生命不可承受之痛。如果认识到这样的困境就潜藏在精神最根本之处,那么如上所述,我们也能够理解为什么宗教的“执求”被认为是最根本的感受和体验了。相比之下,希望这个概念形成一个神性的标准,背负着自我完满的承诺,则被这些念想置于彻底的悲光之下。


The fourth remedy against panic, sublimation, is a matter of transformation rather than repression. Through stylistic or artistic gifts can the very pain of living at times be converted into valuable experiences. Positive impulses engage the evil and put it to their own ends, fastening onto its pictorial, dramatic, heroic, lyric or even comic aspects.

抵御恐慌的第四种手段——升华——是一种转化矛盾而非压抑它的办法。通过文化或艺术上的天分,生活中的所有苦难,都有机会转化成为宝贵的体验。以积极的念头对抗心魔,用扼住心魔喉咙的方式,来完成绘画的、戏剧的、英雄性的、抒情诗的甚至是滑稽的表现。


Unless the worst sting of suffering is blunted by other means, or denied control of the mind, such utilisation is unlikely, however. (Image: The mountaineer does not enjoy his view of the abyss while choking with vertigo; only when this feeling is more or less overcome does he enjoy it – anchored.) To write a tragedy, one must to some extent free oneself from – betray – the very feeling of tragedy and regard it from an outer, e.g. aesthetic, point of view. Here is, by the way, an opportunity for the wildest round-dancing through ever higher ironic levels, into a most embarrassing circulus vitiosus. Here one can chase one’s ego across numerous habitats, enjoying the capacity of the various layers of consciousness to dispel one another.

然而除非最切肤之痛的苦难被其他手段所削弱,或是拒绝了对精神的控制,否则便无法实现升华这一手段。(想象一下:登山者在上气不接下气的时候,是不会想要看深渊的景色的;只有当这种窒息的濒死体验或多或少缓和的时候,他才能安心享受深渊的美景——此时他已经锚定了。)要写就一部悲剧,就必须让自己脱离(或者说,背弃)悲剧的每一分感受,然后再从外部(或者说,从美学的角度)凝视它。顺便一提,这是一个大打太极的良机,从更高级的反讽水平,造就一个最尴尬的恶性循环。此时,人们得以在无数的天性中追逐自我,享受意识在各个层面自我毁灭的能力。


The present essay is a typical attempt at sublimation. The author does not suffer, he is filling pages and is going to be published in a journal.

你眼前的这篇文章就是升华的一个典型例子。作者没有在经受苦难,他在看图写话,而这篇作品会被他发表在期刊上。


The ‘martyrdom’ of lonely ladies also shows a kind of sublimation – they gain in significance thereby.

孤寡女士的“殉难”也是“升华”的一种表现——她们因此获得了存在的意义。


Nevertheless, sublimation appears to be the rarest of the protective means mentioned here.

可惜世上的升华似乎是本文四手段中最稀有的现象。




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 楼主| 发表于 2019-6-29 00:25 | 显示全部楼层

IV


Is it possible for ‘primitive natures’ to renounce these cramps and cavorts and live in harmony with themselves in the serene bliss of labour and love? Insofar as they may be considered human at all, I think the answer must be no. The strongest claim to be made about the so-called peoples of nature is that they are somewhat closer to the wonderful biological ideal than we unnatural people. And when even we have so far been able to save a majority through every storm, we have been assisted by the sides of our nature that are just modestly or moderately developed. This positive basis (as protection alone cannot create life, only hinder its faltering) must be sought in the naturally adapted deployment of the energy in the body and the biologically helpful parts of the soul1, subject to such hardships as are precisely due to sensory limitations, bodily frailty, and the need to do work for life and love.

人回归“原始天性”后,是否有可能抛弃这些雀跃和苦难,让我们得以在消灭形役的极乐与爱中对自己和谐共处呢。只要这些生物还能被称作人类,那我的答案就是“不”。必须说明的是,以所谓自然之道生活的人,不过是比我们非自然之道者更接近于那个完美的生物原型。我们人类能够在历次大动荡中保全下来,也是因为得到了我们适度发展的天性的庇佑。这种积极状态的出发点(因为保护机制本身无法创生,仅能阻碍生命的崩溃)只能从身体适应自然发展时的能量,和有益身体的那部分精神1中找到,其困难也恰恰来自于知觉的局限性,来自于血肉的苦弱,来自于我们要为生活和爱情工作的需求。


And just in this finite land of bliss within the fronts do the progressing civilisation, technology and standardisation have such a debasing influence. For as an ever growing fraction of the cognitive faculties retire from the game against the environment, there is a rising spiritual unemployment. The value of a technical advance to the whole undertaking of life must be judged by its contribution to the human opportunity for spiritual occupation. Though boundaries are blurry, perhaps the first tools for cutting might be mentioned as a case of a positive invention.

正是在这片有穷的极乐妙境中,存在着文明技术和生活标准进步的前线,也正是这样的进步带来了道德败坏的影响。因为越来越多的认知技能在这场对抗天地的竞赛中退场,精神的失业率也陡然攀升。科技进步对全体人类承担的价值必须由它对人类精神所贡献的就业机会来界定。虽然这个界定的边界模糊不清,但或许第一个为“剪切”而制作的工具是上述积极发明的一个例子。


Other technical inventions enrich only the life of the inventor himself; they represent a gross and ruthless theft from humankind’s common reserve of experiences and should invoke the harshest punishment if made public against the veto of censorship. One such crime among numerous others is the use of flying machines to explore uncharted land. In a single vandalistic glob, one thus destroys lush opportunities for experience that could benefit many if each, by effort, obtained his fair share.2

其他的发明只能充实发明者本人的生命;这是对属于人类共享经验的粗暴无情的盗窃,如果发明者反抗作为审查的否决而将其公开的话,那就应该给予他最严厉的处罚。其他领域中也有同样的罪行,比如用飞行器探索未知的土地。在这样的徇私枉法中,他们摧毁了如果人人守其本分,则本可能造福千万人的体验。2


The current phase of life’s chronic fever is particularly tainted by this circumstance. The absence of naturally (biologically) based spiritual activity shows up, for example, in the pervasive recourse to distraction (entertainment, sport, radio – ‘the rhythm of the times’). Terms for anchoring are not as favourable – all the inherited, collective systems of anchorings are punctured by criticism, and anxiety, disgust, confusion, despair leak in through the rifts (‘corpses in the cargo.’) Communism and psychoanalysis, however incommensurable otherwise, both attempt (as Communism has also a spiritual reflection) by novel means to vary the old escape anew; applying, respectively, violence and guile to make humans biologically fit by ensnaring their critical surplus of cognition. The idea, in either case, is uncannily logical. But again, it cannot yield a final solution. Though a deliberate degeneration to a more viable nadir may certainly save the species in the short run, it will by its nature be unable to find peace in such resignation, or indeed find any peace at all.

人类生活目前的热病尤其受这种现象的影响。例如缺乏基于自然的(生物学的)精神活动表现的是,比方说,弥漫世界的分心情况(如娱乐、竞技运动、广播——“时代的旋律”)。而锚定的表现形式则不那么讨喜——所有沿袭而来的,集体下的锚定天穹都被批评、焦虑、厌恶、混乱所戳穿,绝望乘虚而入(就像装满了尸体的特洛伊木马。)共产主义与精神分析则完全无法共存,双方都在尝试以新颖的方式修改旧制,不过是又从头逃避而已。分别利用暴力和诡计,以危害人类严重认知过剩的方式,来使人类在生物层面更健康。不论在何种情况下,这两种思想都是不可思议的。但同样的,这些手段都无法产生最后的解决方案。虽然对自我意识削足适履可以在短期内拯救人类这一物种,但也会让人类无法找到天性中的平和,或者说本来就无法找到任何平和。


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 楼主| 发表于 2019-6-29 00:27 | 显示全部楼层
V

If we continue these considerations to the bitter end, then the conclusion is not in doubt. As long as humankind recklessly proceeds in the fateful delusion of being biologically fated for triumph, nothing essential will change. As its numbers mount and the spiritual atmosphere thickens, the techniques of protection must assume an increasingly brutal character.

如果我们继续将思绪推向痛苦的终点,那结论就不容置疑了。只要人类仍沉浸在自己昭昭天命般,生物性的胜利的幻想中,那就不会做出本质性的改变。因为人类生活的数量在不断增加,精神的大气在不断的变厚,那为保护它而诞生的天穹也就会变得越加残酷。


And humans will persist in dreaming of salvation and affirmation and a new Messiah. Yet when many saviours have been nailed to trees and stoned on the city squares, then the last Messiah shall come.

人类将执着于得到新救主拯救与认定的幻梦中。人类认为当许多的救主被钉在树上,在城市中心石刑至死后,最后的弥赛亚就会降临。


Then will appear the man who, as the first of all, has dared strip his soul naked and submit it alive to the outmost thought of the lineage, the very idea of doom. A man who has fathomed life and its cosmic ground, and whose pain is the Earth’s collective pain. With what furious screams shall not mobs of all nations cry out for his thousandfold death, when like a cloth his voice encloses the globe, and the strange message has resounded for the first and last time:

然后就会出现这么一个人,他第一个敢于裸露自己的灵魂,将其活生生地暴露在那个对生命最遥远的思考下,暴露在那个关于生命与毁灭大问的思考下。这个人看穿了生活的本质,看穿了无尽的红尘,他的苦难就是全人类的苦难。他浩然的长啸下,所有国家的庸人将不再哭求他千钧的死亡,他的话语如织般笼罩大地,世界回响着他第一次也是最后一次道出的天机:


“– The life of the worlds is a roaring river, but Earth’s is a pond and a backwater.

“- 生命咆哮如流,人间却是死水一潭。


– The sign of doom is written on your brows – how long will ye kick against the pin-pricks?

- 毁灭迫在眉睫,汝何时才愿起身反抗?


– But there is one conquest and one crown, one redemption and one solution.

-尚有一次征服,尚有一顶王冠,尚有一场救赎,尚有一个答案。


– Know yourselves – be infertile and let the earth be silent after ye.”

-人啊,认识你自己,不再增殖,让世界在你们之后得以休诞。”


And when he has spoken, they will pour themselves over him, led by the pacifier makers and the midwives, and bury him in their fingernails.

就在他说完以后,人们被奶嘴生产者和助产士所领导着,一齐涌向他,用自己的指甲将他活活埋葬。


He is the last Messiah. As son from father, he stems from the archer by the waterhole.

他就是最后的弥赛亚。正如孩子起源于父亲,他起源于水塘边的那位弓手。


Peter Wessel Zapffe, 1933


Notes:
注记:
1 A distinction for clarity.
1 (精神)清澈程度的区别。
2 I emphasize that this is not about fantastic reform proposals, but rather a psychological view of principle
2 我如此描述不是想要做什么不现实的改革提议,只是一种从精神分析角度对其原理的展现。

Many thanks to Mrs Berit Zapffe for permission to publish this translation.

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